Children usually progress in a natural, predictable sequence from one developmental milestone to the next. However, each child grows and gains skills at his or her own pace. Some children may be advanced in one area, such as language, but behind in another, such as sensory and motor development.
Most children by age 5:
Have gained about 4.4lb (2kg) and grown 1.5in. (4cm) to 2in. (5cm) since their fourth birthday. Know their address and phone number. Recognize most letters of the alphabet. Can count 10 or more objects. Know the names of at least 4 colors.
Understand the basic concepts of time. Know what household objects are used for, such as money, food, or appliances.
Want to please and be liked by their friends; however, they may occasionally be mean to others. Agree to rules most of the time. Show independence. Are aware of sexuality.
Are more able to distinguish fantasy from reality but enjoy playing make-believe and dress-up. Have distinct ways of playing according to gender. Most 5-year-old boys play in rough or physically active ways, whereas girls of the same age are more likely to engage in social play.
Can carry on a meaningful conversation with another person. Understand relationships between objects, such as “the boy who is jumping rope.” Use the future tense, such as “Let’s go to the pool tomorrow!”
Often call people (or objects) by their relationship to others, such as “Jimmy’s mom” instead of “Mrs. Jones.” Talk about or tell stories. They have little or no trouble being understood by others.
Hop, somersault, and possibly skip. Swing and climb. Stand on one foot. Use the toilet by themselves, but may still wet the bed. Copy triangles and other geometric shapes. Draw a person with a head, a body, arms, and legs.
Dress and undress on their own, although they may still need help tying shoelaces. Write some small and capital letters from the alphabet. Eat with a fork, spoon, and possibly a flatware knife